This report was written in consultation and collaboration with Syrian Women’s organizations and activists, anonymous here for security reasons. Women and girls in Syria, and those fleeing the Syrian conflict as refugees, suffer multiple human rights violations. Some violations pre-date and are exacerbated by the ongoing conflict, while others are a product of the conflict. The Syrian Government has an obligation to take measures to address all of these human rights violations, and to ensure protection and redress for Syrian women and girls. This report focuses on women and girls’ lack of access to education, as well as their lack of access to healthcare, including care specific to victims of gender-based violence. It also illustrates the unavailability of protection and justice for women and girls in the face of ongoing gender-based violence, including sexual violence, forced and early marriage, and “honor” crimes. In addition, it describes how women are discriminated against under Syria’s laws regarding nationality. It also underscores the trampling of U.N. Security Council Resolution 1325, which is supposed to guarantee Syrian women a meaningful place in peace negotiations and reconstruction. The final section is comprised of recommendations to the Syrian Government and the international community.